have

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have (Englisch)[Bearbeiten]

Verb, Hilfsverb, unregelmäßig[Bearbeiten]

Zeitform Person Wortform
simple present I, you, they have
he, she, it has
simple past   had
present participle   having
past participle   had
Alle weiteren Formen: have (Konjugation)

Worttrennung:

have, has, Partizip Perfekt: had, Partizip Präsens: hav·ing

Aussprache:

IPA: have: [1–13, 15–17] [hæv], [14] [hæf]; has: [1–13, 15–17] [hæz], [14] [hæs]; had: [hæd]
we have business to attend to: [wi(ː) ˈhæv ˈbɪz.ˌnɪs tu(ː) ə.ˈtɛnd tu(ː)], doch we have to attend to business: [wi(ː) ˈhæf tu(ː) ə.ˈtɛnd tə ˈbɪz.ˌnɪs]
Hörbeispiele: Lautsprecherbild have (amerikanisch) (Info), Lautsprecherbild to have (britisch) (Info); Lautsprecherbild has (amerikanisch) (Info); Lautsprecherbild had (amerikanisch) (Info)

Anmerkung:

Die Antwort auf eine Frage wie „have you any sugar“ oder „have you got any sugar?“ ist im britischen (und gehobenen amerikanischen) Stil „yes, I have“ (oder, falls nicht, „no, I haven’t“). Die Antwort auf „do you have any sugar?“ ist „yes, I do“ (beziehungsweise „no, I don’t“).[1]

Bedeutungen:

transitiv:
[1] haben; besitzen; zur Verfügung haben
[2] erfahren, erleben
[3] (eine Sprache, ein Fach) kennen, können
[4] betont, oft passiv; umgangssprachlich: (jemanden) betrugen
[5] salopp: (jemanden) ficken
mit Mittelwörtern der Vergangenheit:
[6] erleiden, erfahren (unfreiwillig etwas Schlechtes erfahren): someone had [object] [past participle] = jemandem wurde [das Objekt] [Partizip Perfekt] (siehe die Beispiele)
[7] machen, dass etwas geschieht; veranlassen, dass jemand etwas tut; lassen: someone had [object] [past participle] = jemand lässt/ließ [das Objekt] [Infinitiv] (siehe die Beispiele)
[8] nur aktiv, mit einem Infinitiv ohne to:' veranlassen (befehlen oder bitten), dass jemand etwas tut: someone had [object] [infinitive] = jemand hat [Objekt] dazu gezwungen, zu [Infinitiv]
[9] veranstalten
[10] nur aktiv: essen, trinken
[11] hauptsächlich aktiv: haben, (eine Eigenschaft wie Gnade oder Frechheit) durch Taten zeigen
[12] nur aktiv: (ein Kind) gebären
[13] nur aktiv: in einer bestimmten Lage oder Haltung halten
[14] mit nachfolgendem to (und entweder einem Verb oder nichts): müssen
Hilfsverb:
[15] zur Bildung des Perfekts [15a] (present perfect), des Plusquamperfekts [15b] (past perfect) und des Perfektfuturs [15c] (future perfect)
[16] zur Bildung des (periphrastischen) Vergangenheitskonjunktivs
intransitiv:
[17] selten, gehoben: Reichtum haben

Synonyme:

[1] possess, own
[1–2, 13–14] have got
[2] experience
[3] know
[5] sleep with, vulgär: fuck, beleidigend: conquer
[10] eat beziehungsweise drink; bisschen gehoben: partake of, consume
[12] bear
[14] must

Sinnverwandte Wörter:

[4] decieve, cheat
[6–7, 10] have got
[8] ask to, request; require, demand
[9] host, hold, put on
[11] show
[13] turn, hold

Beispiele:

[1] I have a garden and a huge house.
Ich habe einen Garten und ein großes Haus.
[1] I have two children.
Ich habe zwei Kinder.
[1] You have thirty seconds to explain why you're here.
[1] We don't have time to stay.
[2] I had a good time.
Ich habe mich gut unterhalten.
[2] I have a headache.
Ich habe Kopfschmerzen.
[2] We almost had an accident on our way over.
[3] Only I had failed to mention that Mitterand did not speak English. And Reagan has only a little French. An interpreter should have been called in.[2]
[4] He's just having you (on)!
[4] I was had! / I've been had!
[5] He brags about how many women he has had.
[6] He had his car stolen.
Ihm wurde das Auto gestohlen.
[7] He had his hair cut.
Er ließ sich die Haare schneiden.
[8] Julian had me feed his cats while he was on vacation.
[8] The police had the suspect put his hands up.
[9] Michaela is having a party next weekend.
[9] The candidates are having a debate next weekend.
[9] My favourite bands are having a show next weekend.
[10] I had a hamburger yesterday, so I'm having a salad today.
[10] What did you have for breakfast?
[10] We have dinner at 6 o'clock.
[11] May God have mercy on your soul.
[11] And now you have the nerve to say that?
Und jetzt hast du die Frechheit, das zu sagen?
[12] She had her first child at age twenty.
[12] The couple couldn't have children, so they adopted.
[12] She's in the hospital having a baby!
[13] I had her trapped. (She was trapped.)
[13] I had the coins in a bag.
[13] He had his back to them when they walked in, so they didn't recognise him at first.
[14] We have to go.
Wir müssen gehen.
[14] I didn't want to go, but my parents said I had to.
[14] You don't have to do this! There has to be another way!
[15] When she had finished her meal, she phoned her mother.
Als sie gegessen hatte, rief sie ihre Mutter an.
[15a] I have read the book.
[15b] He had read the book already.
[15c] She will have read the book by the time the book club meets.
[16] Had I known you were sick, I would have come. / If I had known you were sick, I would have come.
[17] Some have; others have not.

Redewendungen:

(one can't) eat one's cake and have it, too (oft auch: have one's cake and eat it, too)
(someone) (can / could / is to) be had = can be bought / bribed
(something) is to be had - es gibt (etwas)

Sprichwörter:

every dog has its day
if you don't have anything nice to say, don't say anything at all
„it's not having what you want, it's wanting what you've got“ (Sheryl Crow)
it is better to have loved and lost than never to have loved at all
„we have nothing to fear but fear itself“ (FDR)

Charakteristische Wortkombinationen:

to have sex

Übersetzungen[Bearbeiten]

? Referenzen und weiterführende Informationen:

[1–7, 9–16] Oxford Dictionaries Online „have
[1–5, 7, 10, 12–15] Macmillan Dictionary: „have“ (britisch), „have“ (US-amerikanisch)
[1, 2, 3–5, 8, 10–12, 15] Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary „have
[1, 4, 5, 12] Merriam-Webster Online Thesaurus „have
[1–5, 8, 10–12, 14–15, 17] Dictionary.com Englisch-Englisches Wörterbuch, Thesaurus und Enzyklopädie „have
[1] PONS Englisch-Deutsch, Stichwort: „have
[1] dict.cc Englisch-Deutsch, Stichwort: „have
[1] LEO Englisch-Deutsch, Stichwort: „have

Quellen:

  1. Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary, 7. Auflage (2007; ISBN-10: 0194001164; ISBN-13: 978-0194001168)
  2. 1999, Elie Wiesel, And the Sea is never full, Seite 215

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